There is a risk of outbreaks of foodborne and waterborne diseases, as well as zoonotic diseases, in the areas affected by Daniel.

After floods, the most likely risks to the health of the population include: gastroenteritis of viral, bacterial and parasitic etiology (norovirus, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, etc.), hepatitis Adiseases of the respiratory system (Covid-19legionella etc.), as well as diseases that are transmitted through carriers and through rodents or other animals (leptospirosis, West Nile virus, malaria etc.).

These are referred to in a circular of the local Public Health, Fofos Kalyva, with the aim of informing and raising the awareness of the medical staff and other health professionals for the early diagnosis and epidemiological recording of diseases, the occurrence of which is favored by the flood phenomena, in the context of the mandatory declaration of diseases and the epidemiological surveillance of the EODY, according to the respective instructions.

Special attention to leptospirosis

Special attention is required for the early recognition and laboratory control of possible cases of leptospirosis.

It is recalled that leptospirosis is microbial infectioncaused by the microorganism Leptospira (Leptospira spp) and observed in humans and animals. The moist environment and the presence of organic materials contribute to the prolonged survival of the microbe.

Leptospirosis can be transmitted when urine or tissues from an infected animal come into contact with mucous membranes (of the eyes, nose and mouth).

Transmission can also occur indirectly when a person comes into contact with a urine-contaminated environment (swimming or exposure to contaminated water, ingestion of contaminated food).

The clinical picture is characterized by fever, headache, chills, myalgias, conjunctival injection and, less commonly, meningitis, rash, jaundice, or kidney failure.

Laboratory criteria for diagnosis include:

– Isolation of leptospirosis from a clinical sample of the patient.

– Detection of leptospirosis in a clinical sample by immunofluorescence.

– Increase in the titer of agglutinins against Leptospira.

– Detection of IgM antibodies against Leptospirosis in the patient’s serum.

Leptospirosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with sudden onset of fever, chills, conjunctival hyperemia, headache, myalgias, and jaundice.

Leptospirosis is a compulsorily notifiable disease that is declared to EODY.

Furthermore, and given the current epidemiological picture of the affected areas, based on the specific weather and environmental conditions, the diagnosis of more cases due to West Nile virus is expected in the coming period. Therefore, attention is drawn to early detection, recording and reporting of suspected and/or confirmed cases. Also, the vigilance of health professionals in cases of dealing with wound infection by bacteria, such as staphylococcus and streptococcus and fungal infections, is deemed appropriate. In addition, care must be taken as, due to conditions, it is not improbable to cause bites (stings) from wild or even domestic animals and reptiles.

Special attention is required for the health care of people who belong to vulnerable groups of the population, such as pregnant women, people with chronic diseases, mobility or other difficulties, elderly people, etc. Health professionals, regardless of the structure in which they serve, are recommended to provide the population of the area with preventive and protective instructions for health and mental health, as well as to guide citizens in a way to ensure the correct and effective use of health services.