In the field of gynecology and reproduction, obesity is associated with menstrual disorders, infertility, miscarriages and obstetric complications. Obesity is a growing health problem in Western societies. It has been associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality due to various pathologies.

Obesity appears to impair human reproduction through various mechanisms such as insulin resistance, elevated androgen levels, and elevated leptin levels. Weight management and nutritional intervention can reverse this condition and improve reproductive function. Obesity also has a negative effect on pregnancy rates after the application of assisted reproductive technologies.

Obese women who undergo assisted reproduction have a lower chance of giving birth to a healthy child compared to women of normal weight. The cause described appears to be the result of a combination of:

a) the lower rates of implantation of the embryos in IVF and of achieving pregnancy.
b) of the highest abortion rate.
c) the increased rate of complications during pregnancy for both mother and fetus.

Fertility prognosis in obese women undergoing all assisted reproductive techniques depends on the endocrine and metabolic environment in the ovary, which affects oocyte quality and, consequently, implantation, embryo development, and pregnancy outcome. There is also clear evidence that the endometrium is adversely affected in obese women, according to recent studies based on the egg donation model.

It is essential for obese women who desire pregnancy to understand that weight loss regulates their menstrual cycle and increases the chance of spontaneous ovulation and conception.

Gradual, sustained weight loss is beneficial both in achieving pregnancy after IVF and in the outcome of the pregnancy itself.